Gender, welfare state regimes and social policy beyond advanced capitalism: Pathways to decommodification in middle-income countries

Nakray, Keerty (2021) Gender, welfare state regimes and social policy beyond advanced capitalism: Pathways to decommodification in middle-income countries. Social Policy and Administration, 55 (7). pp. 1197-1223. ISSN 1445596

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In Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Gøsta Esping-Andersen, using decommodification as a basis, classified advanced capitalist countries into liberal, conservative-corporatist, and social-democratic welfare regimes. Subsequently, Ann Shola Orloff deemed his approach gender blind, and dimensions such as access to paid work and the capacity to form and maintain an autonomous household were added to the existing variables of state–market relations, stratification and social citizenship rights. Based on Orloff's theoretical propositions, this paper develops the decommodification measures to classify middle-income countries (MICs). The paper classifies MICs into five clusters based on hierarchical cluster analysis using variables such as GDP per capita, female labour force participation, availability, duration and wage replacement levels and providers of maternity leave benefits and availability of childcare services, legislation on sexual harassment, marital rape and domestic violence, protection orders, the availability of legal aid for civil and criminal matters and the proportion of seats held by women in parliaments.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Decommodification | Domestic violence and marital rape | Gender | Maternity policies | Welfare/Social provisions
Subjects: Social Sciences and humanities > Social Sciences > Gender Studies
Social Sciences and humanities > Social Sciences > Sociology
JGU School/Centre: Jindal Global Law School
Depositing User: Mr. Syed Anas
Date Deposited: 29 Dec 2021 06:18
Last Modified: 05 Jan 2022 16:33
Official URL:
Funders: Open Society Foundation, United States of America, Research Excellence Fellowship, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary
Additional Information: This paper has benefitted from support of Evelyne Hübscher, Central European University Budapest and Professor John Clammer. I would like to express my gratitude to Professor Bent Greve and the anonymous reviewers for their insights, which have sharpened my work. I am grateful to Greg MacMohan for his statistical support and comment


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